Prevalence of Refractive Errors, Presbyopia and Unmet need of Spectacle Coverage in Sirajganj, Bangladesh: Rapid Assessment of Refractive Errors (RARE) Study
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of refractive error, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in Sirajganj district of Bangladesh.
Method: Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error (RARE) protocol was used to sample participants. A total of 3050 people within the age range of 15-49 years were enumerated and 3043 were available for examination.
Result: The prevalence of refractive error was 4.7% (95% CI: 4.69%-4.71%). Hyperopia(53.5%) followed by Myopia(38.7%) were highly prevalent types of refractive error among the study population. Refractive error was found to be statistically significant with age groups (χ2(4)=127.889, p<0.001). While Myopia and astigmatism appeared to decrease, Hyperopia revealed to increase with age. Spectacle coverage for refractive error was 13.3%(95% CI 5.3-21.3%). The difference in spectacle coverage between male and female participants was not statistically significant (Chi Square test, p=0.098). The prevalence of Presbyopia was 30% (95% CI: 29.98-30.02%). Female had a significantly higher need for presbyopic correction than the male counterpart (χ²=40.091, P<.000). The prevalence of Presbyopia demonstrated to increase with age and it was highly prevalent after the age of 35 years. It was estimated to be 54.3%( 95% CI 53.84-54.76%) and 79.3% (95% CI 78.84-79.76%) for the age group of 36-42 and 43-49 years respectively. In spite of high prevalence, spectacle coverage for Presbyopic correction was very poor. It was estimated to be 3.3%(95% CI -0.6-6%).
Conclusion: This study provides valuable findings to plan effective and appropriate service delivery for refractive errors and Presbyopia which would contribute to achieve the goals of VISION 2020.